domingo, 29 de noviembre de 2015

Compromiso con la Tierra

El 30 de este mes comienza en París la COP21, un evento mundial que debería llegar a acuerdos para reducir la emisión de gases causantes del cambio climático

El 30 de este mes comienza en París la COP21, un evento mundial que debería llegar a acuerdos para reducir la emisión de gases causantes del cambio climático. ¡Nos concierne! Los humanos de hoy tenemos un compromiso con nuestro planeta y la vida que lo puebla, en riesgo por nuestra propia acción: debemos lograr un cambio de rumbo que nos oriente a un futuro de fecundidad y armonía, pues si seguimos como vamos nos espera un futuro de esterilidad y desequilibrio. La responsabilidad de esta dramática situación no es, de ninguna manera, de todas y todos por igual, pero las soluciones sí necesitan ser promovidas por las mayorías. Son ellas quienes pueden asegurar un mañana. 


Es notable que entre las diversas formas vivientes, todas maravillosas en su complejidad y variedad e incluso algunas provistas de sensibilidad e inteligencia, haya en la actualidad solo una, nuestra especie, dotada de particulares capacidades de raciocinio, emotividad y creación. Llevamos doscientos mil años siendo una presencia consciente en el mundo. Lo hemos observado y hemos tratado de explicar sus fenómenos, nos hemos conmovido o asustado ante sus manifestaciones, y hemos generado soluciones técnicas para mejorar nuestra existencia en él. 



Sin embargo, desde principios del siglo XIX los procesos se han disparado, nuestra tecnología se ha hecho crecientemente más poderosa, se ha incrementado nuestro número y se ha impuesto entre nosotros un sistema económico de extraña lógica, el capitalismo, en el cual el fin de la actividad económica no es producir bienes y servicios como tales sino multiplicar el capital. El capital debe siempre crecer, de lo contrario todo el tinglado económico se derrumba. Así, la publicidad nos insta a botar lo viejo aunque sirva y a estar a la moda comprando lo nuevo, los objetos están hechos para que no duren mucho, y el crédito amplía el consumo. Ingentes cantidades de mercancías (desde cholas hasta autos de lujo) se transportan a miles de kilómetros de sus lugares de origen para ser vendidas. Todo esto implica extraer cada día más minerales, talar más bosques, quemar más combustibles generando gases invernadero… Necesitamos otro modo de vivir: cómodo pero sencillo, centrado en la producción local y en la cooperación. 



AURORA LACUEVA
lacuevat@hotmail.com

Conferencias mundiales sobre el Cambio Climatico


January
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First World Climate Conference in Geneva (Switzerland), with the launch of a World Climate Research Programme entrusted to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU).
1 January
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Creation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), responsible for assessing knowledge of climate change and its impacts.
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First IPCC report confirming the existence of global warming and human responsibility for the phenomenon. This report was the basis for drawing up the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Find out more about the IPCC reports here.
3-14 June
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Creation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
The Framework Convention officially recognized the existence of climate change and human responsibility for this phenomenon. Its objective was to stabilize atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that would prevent any dangerous human interference with the climate system. The Framework Convention entered into force on 21 March 1994 and has been ratified by 195 countries. The UNFCCC secretariat plays a key role in organizing the negotiations. It is headquartered in Bonn, Germany.
The Executive Secretary is Christiana Figueres.
1-12 December
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The Kyoto Protocol was adopted, which for the first time set quantified greenhouse gas reduction commitments for developed countries between 2008 and 2012.
COP21serie3-55
16 February
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Entry into force of the Kyoto Protocolwhich concerns 36 developed countries, but not the United States and Australia that did not ratify it. COP sessions are now paired with the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP). TheMontreal COP session – COP11/CMP1 – was the first Meeting of the Parties (28 November-10 December 2005).
3–15 December
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The Bali Action Plan opened negotiations with a view to the adoption of a new international agreement in 2009, to follow on from the Kyoto Protocol in 2012.
7–18 December
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COP15/CMP5 in Copenhagen, Denmark, approved the shared target to limit global warming to 2°C, but no new international agreement was signed.
29 November–10 December
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In Cancún, Mexico, institutions such as theGreen Climate Fund were created.
28 November-11 December
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Creation of the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP), headed by two Co-Chairs, Ahmed Djoghlaf (Algeria) and Daniel Reifsnyder (United States). The ADP was mandated, under the Framework Convention, to produce a new “protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force”. The ADP has produced various text versions which have served as a basis for work during negotiating sessions in Bonn (Germany). This agreement should be adopted in 2015 before taking effect in 2020. That is the challenge of COP21.
September
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The President of the French Republic, François Hollande, informed the United Nations that France wished to apply to host COP21.
26 November–7 December
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The Doha Conference launched the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (2013/2020) to fill the legal vacuum.
COP21serie3-63
11–23 November
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France is officially declared host country at COP19/CMP9 in Warsaw, Poland.
8-13 February
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1st negotiating session in Geneva, Switzerland. The UNFCCC countries produced the official text to be used as a basis for negotiations.
1-11 June
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Negotiating session in Bonn, Germany. The parties asked the ADP co-Chairs to publish a consolidated version of the formal “Geneva” text as a tool to assist governments in their negotiations.
31 August-4 September
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Negotiating session in Bonn, Germany.  The ADP co-Chairs received a new mandate for preparing a new “concise, coherent, comprehensive and consistent” text to be submitted in early October and used as a “final” basis for negotiations.
COP21serie2-46
7 October
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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Climate Policy Initiative think-tank publish their report on climate finance: “Climate Finance in 2013-14 and the USD 100 billion goal”. In 2014, $62 billion was raised by developed countries to help developing countries cope with climate change. The commitment of $100 billion per year from 2020, made during the 2009 Copenhagen COP by developed countries, appears an achievable goal.
19-23 October
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Last negotiating session in Bonn (Germany). The delegates approve the text which will be discussed in Paris.
COP21serie2-50
30 October
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Publication by the UNFCCC secretariat of the summary of the 146 national contributions.
30 November–11 December
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France will be hosting and presiding the COP21 in Le Bourget site.